Infertility is a medical concern that affects a few numbers of couples all over the world. The definition of infertility is the inability to conceive a child after 12 months or more of unprotected and regular sex. According to WHO, infertility affects more than 15% of couples of reproductive age in the world. Infertility is not a life-threatening problem, but it can be emotionally stressful for couples who want to conceive a child.

Causes of Infertility

Hormonal Changes: hormonal imbalances can affect ovulation and fertility. In women, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that can cause ovaries to enlarge and produce cysts that interfere with ovulation as a result making it difficult to conceive.
Age: As women age, the quantity and quality of their fertility decline. After the age of 35 women is more likely to experience difficulty to conceive.
Family History: some couples may be difficult to conceive due to family history. Genetic mutation can cause the reproductive system as a result women may have difficulty conceiving.
Lifestyle Factors: Some lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use can also impact fertility.
Medical Conditions: uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and fallopian tube damage are certain medical conditions that can lead to infertility issues.
Uterine or Cervical Abnormalities: fibroids, polyps, or structural abnormalities these are the conditions that can interfere with implantation or the passage of sperm.

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Fig 1. Infertility in women: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention –

Symptoms of Infertility

the initial symptom of infertility is the inability to conceive a child after regular and unprotected sexual activity for a year or more. here are other signs that may indicate the fertility issue.
Irregular periods: Women who have experienced irregular periods can have difficulty saying when they are ovulating, It is more challenging to conceive.
Painful Periods: It is one of the signs of infertility. In that condition, women can feel pain and that can affect fertility.
Low sex drive: Lower sex drive can be a sign of hormonal imbalances as a result woman is unable to be ready for sexual activity.

Treatment options for Infertility

The treatment options for infertility depend on the causes women face. here is the list of common treatments.
Medications: Some medications such as HCG 500 IU injection can help to activate hormones and improve fertility.
Surgery: In some cases, surgery is needed to correct structural issues like blocked fallopian tubes or uterine fibroids that affect fertility.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART): It includes procedures such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) that retrieve eggs and sperm and fertilize them in a lab after that transferring them to the resulting embryo to the uterus. Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) places sperm directly into the uterus at the time of ovulation which can help to conceive.
Lifestyle changes: Changes in regular life such as quitting smoking, reducing or stopping alcohol consumption, maintaining a healthy weight, and healthy diet plan can help improve fertility.

Prevention of Infertility

There are some steps that couples can take to improve the chances of conceiving, Some prevention factors can help to improve fertility.
Maintain a healthy weight: Being underweight or overweight can affect your fertility. So, it is very important to maintain a healthy weight that can help to improve the chances of conceiving.
Reduce Alcohol Intake: Excessive or beyond your limitation of alcohol consumption always affects our health. So, limiting your alcohol intake help to get conceive.
Quit Smoking: Smoking and tobacco can harm the female reproductive system and also negatively affect hormone production. In the end, quitting smoking help to improve fertility to get pregnant.
Manage Stress or Depression: Stress or depression can badly affect fertility. So, women need to practice stress-reducing activities such as Meditation, yoga, exercise, and laughter therapy can help better fertility.


infertility can be an emotional and challenging experience for women who wants a child. So, there are many treatment options available that can easily get rid of infertility problems. If anyone is experiencing symptoms of infertility, then it is time to speak with your partner and your family doctor to find out the cause and discuss proper treatment options.