A cyst of an ovary is a cyst-like substance that is filled with fluid that form on or inside the ovary. Ovarian cysts relate to women very frequently and these cysts come in all sizes and kinds. Its advance may be during the years of childrearing or the time after menopause. Many ovarian cysts are not dangerous and do not require treatment, in most cases, they just dissolve or disappear by themselves! While some of the ovarian cysts may further cause complications that need treatment, others may not cause any issues and get resolved in time.

5 Types of ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts form for different reasons.

  • Follicular cysts: In females, follicles are the fluid-filled sac-like follicles (eggs) which are produced in their ostettiary glands (ovaries) during menstruation time. Conventional support, this cellular sac will rupture every 30 days thus releasing eggs but when this sac fails to break cyst or nodule is formed from the fluid compartment of the ovary.
  • Corpus luteum cysts: Corpus luteum cysts are fluid-filled mass that form when a follicle releases an egg, but then seals again. They then disappear within a few weeks or a few months.
  • Endometriomas: Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that resembles the lining of the uterus grows outside of it.
  • Cystadenomas: Develop from cells on the outer surface of the ovary and can be filled with watery or mucous-like fluid.
  • Polycystic ovaries: Associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), where multiple small cysts form on the ovaries.

Which age group of Ovarian Cysts is commonly prone to it?

Ovarian cysts can happen to women of any kind with pregnant women in their ‘childbearing stage’ being the most affected group of people, people from teens to early fifties. As a result, these kinds of cysts can happen also in postmenopausal women. Women present with ovarian cyst symptoms such as pelvic pain or irregular menstrual cycles deserve medical attention to identify the source of the problem and provide appropriate treatment. Besides, many modern gynaecological types of check-ups and tests can detect ovarian cysts in advance and will work as a prevention of their starting course.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts:

Ovarian cysts often have no symptoms, but when symptoms do occur, the most common are:

  • Pelvic pain
  • Pelvic pressure and fullness
  • Bloating or increased abdominal size
  • Abdominal swelling with irregular periods
  • Problems emptying your bladder completely
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Breast tenderness
  • Rapid weight
  • Dull ache that spreads to your lower back and thighs

The key is to be aware of any unusual or persistent changes in your body and tell your doctor. Many cysts cause no symptoms at all and may disappear without treatment. However, see your doctor if you have any of these symptoms for 2-3 cycles or if the symptoms are severe. Ovarian cysts can sometimes require medical treatment.

Causes and Risk Factors of Ovarian Cysts:

Ovarian cysts can develop for various reasons. Some of the main causes and risk factors include:

  • Hormonal changes: The activity of the hormones may be the reason for the appearance woman`s ovarian cysts that are present while women undergo menstruation. Hormones, as if in a race to throw the ovaries in gear, drive the follicles to grow every month. The possibility that the follicle cannot be drained and the egg will not be released? maybe a cyst will appear. Besides pregnancy, menopause, and birth control pills consisting of hormones, cysts can also be caused by all these reasons.
  • Infertility treatments: Fertility drugs like clomiphene citrate are used to stimulate ovulation, however, may lead to the presence of various follicles and cysts in the body. In addition to a higher in vitro fertilization risk of cysts, it has some adverse effects on the current reproductive health.
  • Endometriosis: In women who suffer endometriosis, there are no endometrial tissues in their uterus, but there are ectopic tissues, which are similar to the inner uterus lining, and they are found outside the uterus. This tissue rich in hormones, when stimulated, either forms cysts or the ovaries become abnormally large. Up to 17% or 44% of the women with endometriosis might have ovarian samples showing cysts.
  • Family history:  Some gene mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are linked to a higher risk of ovarian cysts and ovarian cancer. Having a family member with ovarian cysts may indicate a higher genetic risk.


Diagnosing ovarian cysts typically involves a combination of physical exams, imaging tests, and blood tests.

  1. Physical Exam: During a physical exam, the doctor will check for signs of cysts such as abdominal swelling or pain. They may be able to feel an enlarged ovary which could indicate a cyst.
  2. Pelvic Exam: A pelvic exam checks the ovaries’ size and shape by inserting two fingers into the vagina and pressing on the abdomen to identify cysts or abnormalities.
  3. Blood Tests: Blood tests can check hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and tumor markers, to identify ovarian cysts if abnormal.
  4. CT Scan: A CT scan takes cross-sectional X-rays to create detailed images of the ovaries. This allows visualization of cysts and can help identify larger masses.
  5. MRI Scan: An MRI is the most effective diagnostic tool to differentiate between various types of ovarian cysts, including fluid-filled, solid, and semi-solid cysts. Moreover, it plays a crucial role in surgical planning, making it an indispensable tool for healthcare professionals.


Treatment for ovarian cysts depends on the type of cyst, your symptoms, your age, and whether you want to become pregnant someday. Your doctor will work together with you to choose the most appropriate course of treatment. Common options include:

  1. Watchful waiting: If the ovarian cyst is small and doesn’t cause any symptoms, your doctor may recommend watchful waiting. You will have follow-up pelvic exams or ultrasound tests to monitor the cyst over time. Many functional cysts resolve on their own within a few months.
  2. Medication: Birth control tablets may be suggested by your doctor to assist stop the formation of new cysts. Birth control tablets contain hormones that can aid in preventing ovulation, which in turn prevents ovarian cyst formation.
  3. Surgery: If a cyst grows large, twists your ovary, or ruptures, you may need surgery. There are several types of surgery to treat ovarian cysts:
  4. Laparoscopy: The cyst is removed by making tiny abdominal incisions. This is a minimally invasive procedure.
  5. Laparotomy: A larger abdominal incision is made to remove a cyst. This is considered major surgery.
  6. Oophorectomy: The ovary containing the cyst is partially or completely removed. This is usually done if the cyst is cancerous.
  7. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus as well as the ovary with the cyst. This may be recommended if cancer is found.


In the majority of cases, there is no way to stop most ovarian cysts. However, frequent pelvic exams can help detect your ovarian cancer as early as possible. Note down any changes in your menstrual cycle, particularly symptoms that last for more than one or two cycles. Consult your doctor if you are worried about changes in your health.

Lifestyle Changes to Manage Ovarian Cysts:

Prevention of recurring ovarian cysts and managing ovarian health effectively can involve various lifestyle changes and strategies. Here are some tips to help:

  1. Regular Gynecological check-ups: Routine visits to your healthcare provider can help monitor ovarian health and detect any cysts early.
  2.  Hormonal balance: Maintaining hormonal balance through lifestyle changes like stress management, adequate sleep, and a healthy diet can help prevent hormonal imbalances that may contribute to ovarian cyst formation.
  3. Diet: Research suggests a diet that is full of different kinds of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein may be able to improve reproductive health. It is good you slow down the eating of processed foods and sugar as they interfere with the balance of hormones.
  4. Exercise: Regular exercises are efficient for ovarian cysts prevention among other issues through regulating hormones, lowering stress, and maintaining proper weight.
  5. Managing pain: Sometimes over-the-counter pain medications are also used to abolish pain and discomfort caused by ovarian cysts. Gentle warmth treatment, like yoga, or meditation can lead to stress being relaxed.
  6. Birth control pills: In essence, hormonal contraceptives are capable of adjusting normal menstrual cycle, and stopping existing cysts from developing.

It’s important to consult with a healthcare provider for personalized advice on managing ovarian cysts and promoting overall ovarian health. Remember to follow medical recommendations and stay proactive about your health.