Scleroderma is a medical condition that affects the body’s connective tissue, causing the skin to swell, harden, and thicken. It can also affect other parts of the body, such as joints and muscles. Also, symptoms associated with scleroderma include joint pain; digestive problems; respiratory problems; And cardiovascular problems are also included. Although there is no cure for scleroderma, there are treatment options that can help reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Scleroderma can be caused by problems with the immune system, problems with the way connective tissue develops, genetic predisposition, or exposure to chemicals or environmental factors, including infections such as viruses or bacteria.

Understanding the Causes of Scleroderma Allmedscare
Fig 1. Understanding the Causes of Scleroderma

The Symptoms of Scleroderma

Skin changes are the most common symptom of scleroderma. The skin may become thick, dry, or thickened, and the skin may appear shiny in some areas. In more advanced cases, areas of the skin may harden and form nodules that may be painful to the touch.
Joint and muscle pain is another symptom of scleroderma. But if it is not treated on time, it can grow and at the same time, it usually affects the hands, feet, elbows or knees before it spreads to other parts of the body such as the lower back or hips.
Digestive problems are also common among those living with scleroderma. Gastrointestinal issues like heartburn, constipation or diarrhea are especially prevalent due to inflammation in the digestive tract caused by this condition.

In addition, people with scleroderma may have difficulty swallowing food due to tightening of the muscles around their esophagus, which makes it difficult for food to pass properly into their stomach. Scleroderma spread to organs such as the lungs or chest wall muscles can cause breathing problems, causing them to thicken and make it difficult for the sufferer to breathe as well as damage the lung tissue and cause coughing along with fatigue.
Finally, cardiovascular issues like high blood pressure, fluid retention, an increased risk of stroke, and coronary artery disease can also manifest. because it has an impact on different organ systems that regulate heart rhythm. So, it is important to regularly and periodically check for this disease.

Types of Scleroderma

  • Localized scleroderma: Localized scleroderma is a type of condition that affects only one part of the body, usually limited to the skin and underlying tissues. It usually presents as hard and thickened patches or bands on the surface of the skin.
  • Systemic scleroderma: Systemic scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a severe form that damages multiple organs, including the lungs, heart, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.
  • Morphea Scleroderma: Morphea Scleroderma is another type of this condition where plaques develop on certain areas of skin causing discoloration, thickening , itching etc.
  • CREST Syndrome: Calcinosis Cutis, Raynaud’s Phenomenon, Esophageal Dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, and Telangiectasia (CREST syndrome) are five disorders linked to systemic sclerosis that affect different organ systems all throughout the body. Individuals who are exposed to cooler temperatures have hand and foot edoema, followed by redness and finally white colouring.

Possible Causes

Defects in the immune system are believed to be the primary cause behind scleroderma. The immune system normally protects our body from foreign invaders, but when it malfunctions, it can cause inflammation and autoimmune responses that damage tissues and organs. In people with scleroderma, this breakdown causes an overproduction of collagen that builds up in the skin and other organs, causing it to tighten and thicken.
A further potential cause of scleroderma is dysfunction in the connective tissue formation process. The body’s connective tissues give it shape, sturdiness, and flexibility, but when they don’t grow properly owing to genetic mutations or environmental circumstances, these functions can go awry and cause structural abnormalities like scleroderma.
Genetic makeup (genotype) also plays a role in how susceptible someone may be to developing scleroderma. Some genes associated with an increased risk of the condition have been identified, including HLA-DRB1 gene variants as well as abnormally expressed genes related to collagen production. These genetic predispositions make some people more likely than others for their bodies’ immunity systems mistakenly attacking healthy cells instead of targeting foreign invaders causing further complications within affected organ systems.
Finally, environmental factors such as exposure toxins or infections, like viruses or bacteria , could also contribute towards onset Sclerosis according research studies conducted date.

Treatment Options

Medication is one of the most common treatment options for scleroderma. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to reduce the inflammation and pain associated with this condition. Steroids may also be used in more severe cases to help reduce symptoms, but these drugs should be taken with caution due to potential side effects.
Physical therapy can also play an important role in managing scleroderma because exercises can help strengthen weak muscles and improve range of motion in stiff joints.
Surgery should only be considered as a last option after all other treatments have failed, especially in organs like the heart or lungs that are more susceptible to complications than normal. Fluid accumulates in the affected part of the body.


Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune condition that affects the skin and other organs of the body. It can be localized or systemic in nature, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe depending on its severity. Understanding the signs and causes of this condition helps patients to seek medical attention early, allowing for better management options before it becomes too advanced. Treatment options vary depending on how far it has progressed but generally include medication, topical creams and physical therapy.