Any loss of pregnancy before 20 weeks is a miscarriage. An estimated 10 to 15 percent of pregnancies end in miscarriage, although this percentage may be higher because sometimes the miscarriage occurs before a woman knows she is pregnant, and sometimes before she even realizes she is pregnant.

Although loss is common after a miscarriage, there are techniques to manage the emotional toll and may reduce risk factors for experiencing one in the future. Becoming a mother is the most pleasant experience for a woman. But at the same time, during this 9-month journey of becoming a mother, pregnant women have many doubts about the baby, the most common of which is the fear of miscarriage.

Causes and Risk Factors:

  • Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities can cause miscarriage. These include problems such as incorrect chromosome numbers or structural changes in chromosomes, and translocations.
  • Hormonal Imbalance: Hormonal imbalance can also cause miscarriage by inhibiting the natural growth of the fetus. Examples include low levels of progesterone, which can hinder implantation, and insulin resistance, which can affect a pregnant woman’s ability to control her blood sugar and increase her baby’s risk of growth and development problems.
  • Infections: Infectious diseases, such as rubella (German measles), toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), or listeriosis can cause miscarriage because of their ability to cross the placental barrier into the foetal circulation.
  • Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid problems, kidney diseases, autoimmune disorders, etc. This can cause a woman to miscarry as they do not get enough oxygenated blood supply, which is essential for the growth and proper nutrition of the baby.
  • Environment and Lifestyle: Certain environmental factors increase risk of miscarriage such as cigarette smoking; Drinking too much alcohol; using illegal drugs; Working some jobs with exposure to poisons/chemicals etc.

Types & Symptoms:

  • Threatened abortion: A threatened abortion in which there is some bleeding, cramping or pain, and menstrual cramps, but the cervix remains closed and the fetus survives. This type of miscarriage needs no medical intervention if it occurs early in pregnancy.
  • Inevitable Miscarriage: When a pregnant woman has symptoms like profuse vaginal bleeding and premature death of the fetus from the cervix and it will not go away without medical treatment, it is called an inevitable miscarriage.
  • Incomplete Miscarriage: When the body does not expel the fetus from the uterus completely, such as when it is too large to pass through the uterus naturally, insufficient uterine contractions, etc. It is an incomplete miscarriage.
  • Complete Miscarriage: A complete miscarriage occurs when the entire pregnancy, including the placenta and fetal contents, passes out either naturally at home through normal vaginal discharge or after a surgical dilation and evacuation procedure under general anesthesia that is typically performed due to the risk of haemorrhaging if left untreated. This method involves removing only a portion of the contents via suction or scraping after the cervical opening has been made.
  • Missed Miscarriage: A missed miscarriage is when a woman still thinks she is pregnant after 12 weeks of pregnancy, even though no heartbeat can be seen on an ultrasound scan, but her baby dies unnoticed.

Complications from Previous Miscarriages:

  • Infections: Infection is the cause of repeated miscarriages, due to the entry of microorganisms through the vagina, cervix, or uterus. Infections can occur due to STIs such as chlamydia or gonorrhea or by a botched abortion. Symptoms of infection include fever, abdominal pain, and increased vaginal discharge. Antibiotics treat these illnesses, and in more severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
  • Cervical Insufficiency: The cervix opens early during pregnancy due to weak cervical muscles or an abnormally short cervix, a condition known as cervical insufficiency. If not treated immediately with surgery (cerclage), which fortunately requires stitches to close the opening for the rest of the pregnancy until delivery can be safely and completed without any other complications.
  • Decreased Chances of Subsequent Pregnancies: A woman who has experienced numerous miscarriages may find it difficult to get pregnant again, but this is uncommon because the earlier losses are less likely and the risk of potential complications increases as a result of scarring and tissue damage after each treatment. Finally become pregnant after the second attempt, hopefully without incident. This does not prevent her from ever becoming pregnant naturally, but it does increase the possibility that she will struggle with infertility, necessitating more research into various assisted reproductive methods like IVF.

Emotional Impact

The emotional impact of abortion can be intense and long-lasting, such as grief, anxiety, depression, guilt, and anger. These feelings come and go as the individual struggles with the loss. Also, some people are overwhelmed by these feelings while others can move through them more quickly over time.

Grief is a natural response to miscarriage because it’s normal to feel depressed after losing something one had hoped for. Its sadness depends on the experience of the pregnancy or how close the miscarriage was to delivery, such as if the woman had a previous miscarriage, or if the pregnancy had medical problems that caused it to end prematurely, her sadness can also increase. Unfortunately, these situations are common, but there is no doubt that they can happen because we are still here today.

Preventive Measures

One of the most important preventive measures to reduce the risk of miscarriage is to eat a balanced and healthy diet. It contains essential vitamins, minerals, protein, and healthy fats. This ensures that both mother and child get all the nutrients they need for healthy growth. A healthy diet should include leafy greens, lean meats, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, as well as nuts, seeds, or legumes.

Regular exercise is an important factor in preventing miscarriage. It helps in keeping blood pressure under control, which in turn regulates hormone synthesis and overall maintains excellent physical health, which is essential during that time. Pregnant women should include various exercises in their weekly schedule, such as walking, yoga/pilates classes, lightweight training sessions, etc.

Deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation techniques, guided imagery, meditation, and other stress management techniques can help reduce the stress caused by anxiety about potential losses experienced before finally reaching the decision stage, even if unfortunate enough. `


After all, miscarriage is a heart-breaking and traumatic event for any woman. Processing the emotions associated with such an event can be difficult and it is important for those affected to seek appropriate support during this time.